Food: Jamón ibérico
When the Spanish finally ejected the Moors from Spain in 1492, legend has it that the Spanish celebrated by consuming a whole lot of pork. To this day, ham is a very popular food in Spain, appearing in everything from simple ham and cheese bocadillos sold by street vendors to plates of the finest ham served by itself, like sashimi.
Jamón ibérico generally refers to cured ham made from the famous Black Iberian pig, whose diet consists of mostly acorns and other forest food. Naturally, it's expensive to raise a pig this way, so the ham is pricey and rare outside of Spain. The stuff tastes great though - like prosciutto, but with a distinct flavor that undercuts the saltiness.
We didn't get to eat there, but the Museo del Jamon is one of the most famous chains of restaurants inside Madrid. It's invariably crowded with both tourists and locals because of the reasonable prices. If you do ever visit Spain, it's probably worth a look.